from the highest mountain tops.

Geodesy has, as its main purpose, the study of the shape and dimensions of the Earth, as well as the determination of the gravitational field and its temporal variation. Geodetic measurements combined with celestial observations made possible a great advance in the knowledge of the dimensions and ellipticity of the earth, information that has allowed, at the expense of developed theories and calculations, to obtain a geometric reference for other geosciences. For this, various measurement techniques are used, both terrestrial and spatial, in which the distances and directions (angles) between points under or above the surface of the earth are determined, its elevation, latitude and longitude are calculated, as well as the gravitational terrestrial field, being some of the main uses of this geodetic data the establishment of georeferencing systems and the elaboration of a great variety of charts/maps. To carry out this type of measurements, fundamental geodesy instruments (theodolite and high precision levels) or modern spatial geodesy techniques (GNSS positioning systems) are used, among others.